# Symbolic Logic

You might be wondering why Symbolic Logic has any relevance to this Grael material. The connections are through metaphysics and psychology, and how we apply our conscious minds to making distinctions.

Let's start with Lewis Caroll - well-known as the creator of the *Alice* books and *The Hunting of the Snark*. Less well-known as a mathematician and the author of Symbolic Logic.

He was mathematically gifted and won a double first degree, which could have been the prelude to a brilliant academic career. Instead, he married his first cousin Frances Jane Lutwidge in 1827 and became a country parson.

(Wikipedia)

Here's the entire book online : Symbolic Logic by Lewis Caroll. It's worth reading just to appreciate the clarity of thought at work. Every abstract expression is immediately made clear by example. That in itself is a hallmark of vision-to-action, and a great example of leading-by-example.

Bertrand Russell’s symbolic logic is well described elsewhere. For us, it's a stepping stone towards ...

George Spencer-Brown's Laws of Form.

The theme of this book is that a universe comes into being when a space is severed or taken apart. The skin of a living organism cuts off an outside from an inside. So does the circumference of a circle in a plane. By tracing the way we represent such a severance, we can begin to reconstruct, with an accuracy and coverage that appear almost uncanny, the basic forms underlying linguistic, mathematical, physical, and biological science, and can begin to see how the familiar laws of our own experience follow inexorably from the original act of severance. The act is itself already remembered, even if unconsciously, as our first attempt to distinguish different things in a world where, in the first place, the boundaries can be drawn anywhere we please.

The act of making a distinction.

The mark of the boundary is ¬

First Law of Form: ¬ ¬ = ¬ [called the form of condensation]

Second Law of Form:_{¬}^{¬}= . [called the form of cancellation or annihilation]

Ref : http://www.doyletics.com/arj/lofmart.htm

"Where Mathematics Come From " or "How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being" (by George Lakoff and Rafael Nuñez) is a study of the cognitive science of mathematics. The implication of their work is that all mathematics is an **externalised description** of our own minds at work. Therefore, a language we use for one mind to share its efforts and outputs with another mind.

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